Cos was the birthplace of Hippocrates and the center of the worship of Asklepious
the god of medicine. From Cos several other Asklepious (medical) sactuaries spread
to other cities. Cos was a reluctant member of Athens Delian league. They stopped
coinage in 449 BC when Athens ordered all members of the Delian league to stop
producing coins, but Cos made a minor revolt and started issueing coins again in 440 BC.
Cos was destroyed in the Peloponnessian war. The city of Cos was refounded in 366 BC under
the influence of Athens. In 357 BC, Cos along with other Island states (Chios and Rhodes)
revolted against Athens. This left them vulnerable to Persia. "Mausolos" (a Persian tributary
prince in Caria) garrisoned troops on the islands in 354 BC effectively taking control. The
citizens of Cos and Rhodes appealed to Athens to intercede against this new tyrant without
success. Meanwhile "Mausolos" died and the Carians lost interest in the islands. The islands
eventually fell under Macedonian rule and than Ptolomaic rule. Under the Ptolomaic kings Cos
became a cultural center.