Kingdom of Pergamon
Near the West coast of present day Turkey. Pergamon, in the province
of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander
the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thace and north western Asia. After the
battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents.
Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and
deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard
under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially
fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all
the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty
of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers
to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria.
At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the
territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek
cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria.
But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome
upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized
the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they
seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.