Roman Julius Caesar Denarius "Dictator for Life" 44 BC

Obv: Laureated and veiled head r."CAESAR DICT PERPETV" : Venus stdg left holding victory and scepter.

Metal: Silver 3.91grams, 20 mm diameter. Condition: VF/F+ good metal.

This coin was issued declaring that Caesar was chosen as Dictator for Life (Perpetual). Effectively ending the republic. It was issued only about a month before his assassination and this honor may have been the final straw for the defenders of the Republic.

History of Julius Caesar 

Born in 100 BC, he rose to prominence rather late in life and at the age of 31 he was ashamed of how few accomplishments he had made compared to Alexander the Great at the same age. Caesar's early career followed a predictable pattern for a Roman noble man until 65 BC when, while deeply in debt, he became allied with Crassus (the wealthiest man in Rome). Crassus recognized something special about Caesar's skills and realized it would benefit him to have Caesar as an ally. In 63 BC, Caesar engineered his election to the position of "pontifex maximus" (head of the pristhood). He later became governor of "Hispania Ulterior" (farther Spain), which ended in 60 BC. Caesar returned to Rome and in 59 BC formed the "First Triumvirate" with Crassus and Pompey, which was sealed by the marriage of Caesar's daughter Julia to Pompey. Through this strong political alliance Caesar was elected to consulship along with Pompey, after which he took control of 4 legions in Gaul. Caesar spent 8 years conquering Gaul and became an experienced general. Fearing Caesar's popularity, the senate refused Caesar's request to bring his troops into Rome for a triumph. Caesar defied the Senate and brought his troops to Italy with the famous crossing of the Rubicon on 10 January 49 BC. Meanwhile, Pompey had assembled an army in Greece and they met at the battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC. Pompey was defeated and fled to Egypt. Caesar followed and in Egypt Caesar became involved with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. In 47 BC, Caesar returned to Italy and stamped out a mutiny. In 46 BC, Caesar stamped out republican resistance in North Africa. He returned to Rome on 25 July 46 BC and requested Cleopatra to join him. Although Caesar was much beloved, Cleopatra was not. In 45 BC, Caesar stamped out the last republican resistance in Spain, followed by his Spanish triumph in October 45 BC

Caesar was at the height of his power and on 14 Feburary 44 BC he was given the title "dictator perpetuus" (dictator for life) - commemorated on this coin. Caesar still wanted more, as he wanted to conquer Asia as had been done by his hero Alexander the Great, however the Sibylline Books prophesied that only a king could conquer Parthia - Caesar was a mere dictator. Caesar through his chief lieutenant "Mark Anthony" began steps to become king. The Senators (about 60 participated) were angered and fearful of their positions and on the Ides (15th) March 44 BC, Caesar was brutally killed in public as an act of liberty from the tyrant.